fbpx
You are currently viewing AS 1670 Fire Detection, Warning and Control Systems (FDWC)

AS 1670 Fire Detection, Warning and Control Systems (FDWC)

Fire detection warning control systems are typically classified into two categories:

Fire detection warning control systems are typically classified into two categories: fixed fire detection systems and portable fire detection systems. Fixed fire detection systems are permanently installed in a specific location, while portable systems can be moved from one location to another.

Fixed fire detection system components include:

-A detector which detects heat or smoke from a fire; this may be an optical detector or a thermal detector (infrared sensor);

-A zone controller which identifies the location of the fire and determines whether it is within a protected area;

-A signaling device which provides an audible or visual warning when there is a detected hazard; this may be part of the detector itself or separate from it;

-A supervisory circuit which monitors all zones simultaneously for faults;

Portable fire detection systems include:

Portable chemical alarms, portable flame detectors and portable heat alarms. Portable chemical alarms detect the presence of combustible gases such as carbon monoxide with a chemical sensor; portable flame detectors use photoelectric or thermal sensors to detect fires; and portable heat alarms use thermopiles or thermo-couples to monitor temperature changes caused by flames or hot surfaces.

Fire detection, warning, control and intercom systems—System design, installation and commissioning: AS 1670.1:2018.

This standard specifies requirements for the design, installation and commissioning of fire detection, warning and control systems. The standard covers:

• Design requirements for fire detection, warning and control systems (FDWC) including system design objectives;

• Installation requirements for FDWC including site selection; system location; installation planning; temporary wiring; cabling; equipment rooms; main power supply circuits; electrical bonding and earthing; fire alarm panels; smoke detectors; sprinklers and water mist systems (WMS); heat detectors (HD); gas detectors (GD); heat release rate (HRR) devices; heat detectors with integrated smoke detection capability (HD-ID); voice evacuation systems (VES); low-voltage fire alarm systems (LVFA); gas detection systems (GDS); control panels with integrated smoke detection capability (CP-ID); non-incendive relays (NIR).

FDWC is a method of fire detection and warning in which the detection system is installed in the demarcation zone between a protected area and the surrounding areas.

The installation requirements for FDWC include:

Site selection:
FDWC shall be located in the demarcation zone, between the protected area and any surrounding areas that may be subject to a fire or explosion hazard. FDWC shall be located in the demarcation zone, between the protected area and any surrounding areas that may be subject to a fire or explosion hazard.

The site selection process should consider the following:

1) The FDWC must be located within the demarcation zone, which is defined as all areas that are within 500 meters of any structure or vegetation that could be damaged by an explosion at a facility. This includes both land and water bodies.

2) The FDWC must be isolated from sources of ignition such as flammable gases, liquids or solids, electrical arcs and sparks; heat sources such as furnaces and open flames; ignition sources such as welding equipment; friction sources such as machine tools; radioactive materials; explosive atmospheres; and unauthorized personnel.

3) The FDWC must be isolated from areas where large quantities of flammable liquids or gases may be in storage containers (such as fuel tanks).

System location:
The standard says the fire detection and warning system should be located in a dry, well-ventilated area, away from sources of high heat, flammable substances and other combustible materials. The system shall be installed so that all parts of it are accessible for inspection, maintenance, repair, and replacement without damage to other parts of the building or structure.

The standard also states that no part of the system may be installed where it might become wet during normal use or operation of the buildings or their equipment. For example:

In a boiler room where steam is vented directly into the atmosphere

On an outside wall where water can leak into it

In an area where condensation occurs as a result of humidity levels being too high

Installation planning: The installation should be planned in accordance with AS 1670-1-5.

Temporary wiring:

Temporary wiring may be used only if it is installed under conditions that ensure its continued integrity throughout its life and is not subjected to conditions likely to cause damage or failure during its service life. Appropriate measures must be taken to ensure that temporary wiring does not create an unacceptable risk of fire or electric shock. Also refer to AS/NZS 3012 “Electrical Installations – Construction & Demolition Sites”

When used as part of a permanent installation, temporary wiring must comply with the requirements specified in AS/NZS 3000:2009. When used as part of a temporary installation, temporary wiring must comply with the requirements specified in this standard.

This standard specifies fire safety requirements for the design, installation and maintenance of electrical cables, wires and conduits installed temporarily (i.e. not permanently) in a building or structure while they are being used for their intended purpose.

Temporary electrical installations may include power lines, lighting systems, heating elements or appliances such as water heaters or air conditioners connected directly to an external source of supply such as a generator or battery power source; temporary heating circuits using portable heaters; temporary lighting circuits using portable fluorescent lights; temporary power tools; temporary air conditioning systems using portable air conditioning units; portable refrigeration equipment and similar items.

This Australian Standard is not intended to apply to:

(a) A permanent installation that will remain in place for more than 30 days.

(b) An installation that is required to be tested and inspected by a third party (e.g., building certifier).

Cabling:
Cables must be installed so that they will be protected against physical damage caused by accidental contact with other objects in use or by normal building operations (e.g., cleaning). They must also be protected from mechanical damage caused by movement; from short circuit due to contact with electrical grounds; and from damage caused by fire.

Cable Tray: Cable tray shall be used for supporting and protecting cables. The tray shall have sufficient capacity to handle all the cables installed in it, and shall have sufficient strength to withstand the loads imposed on it.

Junction Boxes: Junction boxes shall be securely mounted in a manner that prevents them from being dislodged or damaged.

FDWC in Equipment rooms

The term “equipment room” refers to a space within an industrial or commercial facility that is used for the control, switching, or protection of electrical equipment, such as switchboard panels or feeders used for supply current to equipment supplied by that switchboard panel or feeder(s).

FDWC in main power supply circuits

Fire detection warning control systems are required in the main power supply circuits of a building or system.

A fire detection warning control system is defined as an assembly of devices and equipment that provides signals to initiate a predetermined sequence to provide warning and control of fire protection equipment installed within a building or structure.

The following examples illustrate some typical applications for fire detection warning control systems:

– Smoke detectors

– Heat detectors

– Carbon monoxide detectors

FDWC in electrical bonding and earthing

1. The installation requirements for fire detection warning control systems in electrical bonding and earthing are as follows:

a. Where the fire detection warning control system is installed in an aircraft hangar or in any other building where it is exposed to corrosive fumes or vapors, it shall be installed in cabinets, boxes or enclosures that are made of non-corrosive material;

b. The warning control system shall be located as close as possible to the source of power supply for the electrical bonding and earthing system;

c. When a fire detection warning control system is installed on board an aircraft or in any other building, it shall be located on an accessible part of the aircraft or building within easy reach of the pilots, crew members and maintenance personnel;

d. All electrical circuits used by an aircraft fire detection warning system shall be protected against overloads due to short circuits or surges in voltage; and

e. Electrical circuits shall not be connected to a power distribution panel unless they are protected against spikes induced by lightning strikes at ground level or by transient voltages caused by switching operations on other loads connected to that panel.

FDWC in fire alarm panels

Fire detection warning control systems are part of a fire alarm panel. They provide a way to detect smoke and heat, and they also provide a way to alert the appropriate people when a fire or other emergency is detected.

Fire detection warning control systems use sensors to detect smoke and heat, which triggers an alarm and notifies the appropriate authorities. Fire detection warning control systems can be found in many places, including:

-commercial buildings

-industrial facilities

-residential buildings

Examples of fire detection warning control systems include:

-Heat Detectors: Heat detectors are designed to sense changes in temperature from areas within a building. They are often used as part of smoke detectors because they can sense both smoke particles and changes in temperature caused by fires.

-Smoke Detectors: Smoke detectors are designed to sense visible smoke particles in airways within buildings or homes. Smoke particles will trigger these devices when they come into contact with them due to their small size. These devices are often installed on ceilings since they emit smoke upwards into the airways where it can be detected by the detector’s sensors located near its top end (where they face towards).

FDWC for Smoke Detectors

Fire detection warning control systems for smoke detectors are systems that are designed to detect the presence of smoke and then sound an alarm. These systems are used in situations where there are high levels of risk associated with fire, such as in industrial plants or other facilities that handle hazardous materials.

Examples of systems include:

– Smoke detectors that use ionization or photoelectric technology

– Smoke detectors that use both ionization and photoelectric technology

FDWC for sprinklers and water mist systems (WMS)

Fire detection warning control systems are used to monitor the status of water mist systems and sprinkler systems, and to provide an audible warning to occupants when a fire is detected. They can be designed to include a visual indication as well as an audio warning.

Examples of fire detection warning control systems include:

– Water mist system monitoring devices (WMSMD) that use ultrasonic or infrared technology to detect the presence of liquid water in order for the fire detection warning control system to function properly.

– Fire detection warning controls used with sprinkler systems that detect the presence of heat and smoke in order for the device to issue an alert.

-Fixed heat detectors that are connected to an automatic sprinkler system or WMS (water mist system)

-Fixed heat detectors in equipment rooms connected to an automatic sprinkler system or WMS (water mist system)

FDWC for heat detectors (HD)

Fire detection warning control systems for heat detectors (HD) are defined as “a system of devices and controls that monitors the condition of heat detectors, provides a means for detecting over-temperature conditions, and initiates an alarm in the event of an over-temperature condition.”

Examples of Fire Detection Warning Control Systems for Heat Detectors (HD) include:

a) A manual fire alarm system that includes a heat detector, indicating device, and manual pull station.

b) An automatic fire alarm system that includes a heat detector and control unit, which activates an alarm when it senses a high temperature.

A typical fire detection warning control system for heat detectors (HD) is composed of the following parts:

Heat detector, which detects and measures the temperature in a building;

Wiring, which connects the heat detector to the control panel;

Control panel, where signals from the heat detector are processed; and

Alarm system, which notifies people of a fire in a building.

FDWC for gas detectors (GD)

Fire Detection Warning Control Systems for gas detectors (GD) are systems that automatically detect a fire, or the presence of fire-producing gases or products of combustion in a building and provide an alarm signal to the occupants.

These systems are often used in conjunction with carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, which may be required by AS 1670-2018.

Examples:

• Thermocouple

• Infrared radiation sensor

• Pyroelectric detector

FDWC for heat release rate (HRR) devices

Fire Detection Warning Control Systems for heat release rate (HRR) devices are designed to prevent the outbreak and spread of fire.

These systems are used in environments with high concentrations of flammable materials or combustible liquids, such as oil refineries and chemical plants. They can also be used in other areas where a high risk of fire exists, such as aircraft hangars.

The system is comprised of several types of devices: heat detection sensors, temperature sensors, pressure sensors and flow controllers.

The heat detection sensor detects fires by measuring their radiant energy output (i.e., infrared radiation). The temperature sensor senses the presence of an increase in temperature within the environment being monitored by the system. These two types of sensors are installed near areas where there is a high risk for ignition. If a fire occurs, they send signals to activate an alarm or shutdown system components that could allow the fire to spread beyond its current location.

Pressure sensors detect changes in pressure caused by a fire’s heat expansion effect on surrounding air molecules present within an enclosure space being monitored by this type of device system. A flow controller monitors fluid flow within pipelines via pressure changes caused by these pressures acting upon all surfaces within each pipe’s flow path during certain stages.

FDWC for heat detectors with integrated smoke detection capability (HD-ID)

Fire Detection Warning Control Systems for heat detectors with integrated smoke detection capability (HD-ID) is the term used to define a system that integrates smoke detection capability into a heat detector.

This system provides early warning of fire and smoke conditions, such as when an object catches fire in a kitchen or bathroom. It also provides early warning of potential CO poisoning.

The HD-ID system uses a heat detector as the main component. An integrated smoke detector provides additional protection by detecting the presence of smoke before it reaches the heat detector. The combination of the two sensors provides early warning and helps prevent injuries resulting from CO poisoning and fires.

FDWC for voice evacuation systems (VES)

Fire Detection Warning Control Systems for voice evacuation systems (VES) are devices that enable a voice evacuation system to detect and respond to a fire.

A VES is a combination of hardware and software that allows people in an enclosed building or structure to safely exit in the event of an emergency. A VES typically includes sensors, loudspeakers, and a controller that monitors the various sensors and triggers an alert when one of them detects something dangerous. The alert is typically triggered by smoke detectors or heat detectors, but there are other sensors that can be used as well, such as carbon monoxide detectors or water sensors.

The voice evacuation system itself is made up of loudspeakers located throughout the structure with pre-recorded messages that provide instructions on how to exit safely from each room in the building. The system will also provide instructions for people who may not be able to exit under their own power—for example, those with disabilities or those who are unable to walk down stairs on their own.

FDWC for low-voltage fire alarm systems (LVFA)

Fire detection warning control systems are designed to detect and warn of fire in low-voltage fire alarm systems (LVFA) where the fire detectors are connected to a common power supply.

A fire detection warning control system should comply with the following requirements:

1. The unit shall have an automatic test feature that verifies the operation of the system’s components, including the detector sensitivity, sounder sensitivity, and interconnection between detectors and sounders.

2. The unit shall have an audible alarm that operates continuously when any detector is activated or on a time delay after activation. The audible alarm must be located within 120 feet of each detector.

3. The unit shall have a visual indicator that operates continuously when any detector is activated or on a time delay after activation. A visual indicator may be used instead of an audible alarm in areas subject to hearing impairment where there is no other means of notification such as telephones or pagers available for use by personnel who may be in the area but unable to hear an alarm signal because of hearing impairment.

4. The unit shall have an interconnection capability with other fire detection warning systems through a standard interface (e.g., bus bar) so that one control panel can monitor all detectors in a building.

FDWC for gas detection systems (GDS)

Fire Detection Warning Control Systems for gas detection systems (GDS) are a type of system that detects and warns of the presence of flammable or combustible gases. They can be used in a variety of applications, including:

-On board vehicles, such as trucks, buses, and airplanes

-In buildings

-At oil refineries

-In petrochemical plants

FDWC for control panels with integrated smoke detection capability (CP-ID)

Fire detection warning control systems for control panels with integrated smoke detection capability (CP-ID) are designed to detect fires and transmit an alarm signal to a central station or fire alarm control panel when the device is exposed to smoke. These systems are intended for use in commercial buildings and other large structures.

The method of detection may be either optical or thermal. The optical method uses a light beam, which is interrupted by smoke particles and generates a voltage pulse proportional to the amount of smoke present. The thermal method uses a temperature sensor that detects changes in temperature due to the presence of smoke particles.

FDWC for non-incendive relays (NIR)

Fire detection warning control systems for non-incendive relays (NIR) are those that use non-incendive or non-magnetic relays to detect the presence of a fire and/or other hazards, such as smoke, oxygen deficiency, carbon monoxide poisoning, etc., and to control a warning signal.

The NIR system is designed to be used in areas where fires may occur, but not in such a way that could cause damage to the electrical equipment. It should be noted that this type of fire detection system can only be used on electrical equipment which has been approved by an appropriate authority with regard to its suitability for use with an NIR system.

The purpose of these systems is normally to provide an early warning signal when a fire occurs so that action can be taken before it becomes too serious. This type of system is generally used where there is no direct access available for inspection or maintenance work on the equipment concerned.

Inherently, the measures in AS 1670 are quite detailed and technical. While it is always important to remember that your site-specific controls will likely be different than those mentioned in:

AS 3786:2014 – Smoke alarms using scattered light, transmitted light or ionization :

AS1603.17-2011 Automatic fire detection and alarm systems Warning equipment for people with hearing impairment (Summary) :

Automatic Fire Detection and Alarm Systems Part 8: Multi-point aspirated smoke detectors 

AS 7240.6 2006 Fire Detection and Alarm Systems Part 6 Carbon monoxide fire detectors using electro-chemical cells.

It is still necessary to know if you are installing systems as per AS 1670. Note: This standard is not intended to cover all the design, installation and commissioning requirements of all fire detection, warning, control and evacuation systems.

Dedicated To Your Fire Safety

Alex

Call Now Button